In silk painting, a resist (or gutta) is applied to the fabric to form an enclosed boundary to contain the spread of the liquid colours. The lines of the resist outline the design and separate the colours, creating a stained glass effect. Resists are usually applied through special applicators to make fine lines (see Brushes & Applicators) but they also may be painted, splattered or screened. 

Wax is applied to the fabric in a hot liquid state using brushes or tjanting tools (see Brushes & Applicators). Wax is the basis of design structure in batik and Japanese wax resist, but it may be used for many other effects. Each type of wax has different characteristics of penetration, adherence and crackle. Waxes are usually mixed to achieve desired results. Melt low temperature waxes in a double boiler, high temperature waxes must be melted in temperature controlled electric frying pan or deep fat fryer. USE IN A WELL VENTILATED AREA WHEN HANDLING HOT WAX.